Contraception, also known as birth control, refers to the methods and devices used to prevent pregnancy. With the advancement of medical science, there are a variety of contraceptive methods available today. These methods range from hormonal to non-hormonal, long-acting to short-acting, and reversible to permanent. The most common form of contraception is the oral contraceptive pill, commonly known as “the pill.” It contains synthetic versions of the female hormones estrogen and progesterone, which work together to prevent ovulation, the process by which a woman’s ovaries release an egg each month. The pill is very effective when taken correctly, but it must be taken every day to maintain its effectiveness. Some women may experience side effects while taking the pill, such as nausea, headaches, or mood changes.

Types of Contraception

  • Hormonal Contraceptives: These contraceptives contain synthetic versions of hormones that regulate a woman’s menstrual cycle. The hormones prevent ovulation and thicken the cervical mucus to prevent sperm from reaching the egg. Hormonal contraceptives include birth control pills, patches, injections, and vaginal rings.
  • Barrier Contraceptives: These contraceptives physically block the sperm from reaching the egg. Examples include male and female condoms, diaphragms, and cervical caps.
  • Intrauterine Devices (IUDs): IUDs (Intrauterine Devices) are small, T-shaped contraceptive devices that are inserted into the uterus to prevent pregnancy. They are made of plastic or copper and contain no hormones or a small amount of synthetic hormones. IUDs work by changing the way sperm move so they can’t reach an egg, and by changing the lining of the uterus so that a fertilized egg cannot implant and grow. They are highly effective, with a failure rate of less than 1% per year.
  • Sterilization: This is a permanent method of contraception that involves either a vasectomy for men or a tubal ligation for women. These procedures are intended to prevent the release of sperm or eggs, respectively.

Effectiveness of Contraceptives

The effectiveness of contraceptives changes depending on the method used. Some methods are more reliable than others, and it is essential to choose a method that suits your lifestyle and individual needs. Here are some common methods and their effectiveness:

  • Hormonal Contraceptives: When used correctly, hormonal contraceptives are 99% effective. However, they must be taken consistently, and missing a pill or patch can decrease their effectiveness.
  • Barrier Contraceptives: Male condoms are 98% effective when used correctly, while female condoms are 95% effective. Diaphragms and cervical caps are 88% effective.
  • IUDs: Copper IUDs are 99% effective, while hormonal IUDs are 99.8% effective.
  • Sterilization: Vasectomy and tubal ligation are both more than 99% effective.

It is worth noting that these effectiveness rates are based on the proper and consistent use of the methods. Incorrect use, such as failure to use a condom or missing a pill, can reduce their effectiveness

Choosing the Right Contraceptive

Choosing the right contraceptive can be a personal decision that depends on individual preferences and lifestyle. There are some factors to consider when choosing a contraceptive:

  • Frequency of sexual activity: If you have frequent sex, you may want to consider a method that does not require regular attention, such as an IUD or a hormonal contraceptive.
  • Health concerns: Some women may have health concerns that make certain contraceptives unsuitable. For example, women who smoke or have a history of blood clots may be advised against hormonal contraceptives.
  • Cost: Some methods, such as sterilization, may be costly, while others, such as condoms, are relatively inexpensive.
  • STI prevention: Barrier methods, such as condoms, are effective in preventing STIs, while other methods, such as hormonal contraceptives, do not offer STI protection.

medicines used in Contraceptive

  • Allylestrenol
  • Desogestrel
  • Estradiol
  • Ethinyl Estradiol
  • Fosfestrol
  • Ethinyl Estradiol + Levonorgestrel
  • Levonorgestrel
  • Megestrol
  • Norethisterone
  • Centchroman
  • Tibolone
  • Hydroxyprogesterone
  • Medroxyprogesterone acetate
  • Drospirenone
  • Dydrogesterone
  • Estrogen
  • Etonogestrel
  • Estriol
  • Gestodene
  • Dienogest
  • Ethinyl Estradiol + Desogestrel
  • Ethinyl Estradiol + Drospirenone
  • Ethinyl Estradiol + Etonogestrel
  • Ethinyl Estradiol + Gestodene
  • Lynestrenol
  • Norgestrel
  • Norgestrel + Ethinyl Estradiol
  • Conjugated Estrogens
  • Levonorgestrel (intrauterine delivery system)
  • Lynestrenol + Ethinyl Estradiol
  • Levonorgestrel + Ethinyl Estradiol+Ferrous Fumarate
  • Norethisterone enanthate
  • Ethinyl Estradiol + Dienogest