Gynecomastia: Symptoms, Treatment & medicines

Gynecomastia, a common condition among males, involves the enlargement of breast tissue. Often referred to as “man boobs,” gynecomastia can lead to self-consciousness and emotional discomfort. In this article, we will delve into the details of gynecomastia, its underlying causes, potential symptoms, and available management options.


Gynecomastia is a condition where males develop enlarged breast tissue due to a hormone imbalance, and it can be caused by medications, health conditions, and lifestyle factors. Symptoms include breast swelling, tenderness, nipple discharge, and a rubbery or firm feel. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and may include medication changes, hormone therapy, surgery, or other treatments. Seeking medical attention is important for diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

Symptoms of Gynecomastia

  • Swelling or enlargement of breast tissue: This is the most common symptom of gynecomastia, and it can occur on one or both sides of the chest.
  • Tenderness or pain: The breast tissue may be tender or painful to the touch.
  • Nipple discharge: There may be a discharge from one or both nipples, which can be clear, milky, or yellow in color.
  • Uneven breast size: One breast may be larger than the other.
  • Changes in breast shape: The breast may appear more rounded or pointy.
  • Changes in the texture of the breast tissue: The breast tissue may feel more firm or rubbery than usual.

Causes of Gynecomastia

Gynecomastia is caused by both physiological and pathological factors. Physiological causes include hormonal changes during puberty, aging, obesity, and certain medications. Pathological causes include hormonal imbalances, tumors, chronic kidney disease, and malnutrition. It’s important to consult a doctor if there are any concerns about breast tissue growth in males.

how to diagnose Gynecomastia?

The diagnosis of gynecomastia typically involves a physical examination and a review of medical history, including a discussion of symptoms, medications, and any other medical conditions. Additional tests may also be ordered to determine the underlying cause of the gynecomastia, such as:
Blood tests: A blood test can help to determine hormone levels, liver function, and kidney function, which can help to identify the underlying cause of gynecomastia.
Mammography: A mammogram is an X-ray that can help to detect breast cancer in women. It can also be used in men to determine the extent of breast tissue enlargement and to rule out breast cancer.
Ultrasound: An ultrasound can provide detailed images of the breast tissue and can help to determine whether the breast tissue enlargement is glandular (caused by gynecomastia) or fatty (pseudo-gynecomastia).
Biopsy: In some cases, a biopsy may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis of gynecomastia or to rule out other conditions such as breast cancer.

What is the best treatment for Gynecomastia?

The treatment for gynecomastia depends on its underlying cause and severity. In some cases, gynecomastia can resolve on its own without treatment, especially if it is caused by physiological factors such as puberty. However, if gynecomastia is causing discomfort, pain, or embarrassment, there are several treatment options available:
Medications: In some cases, medications such as tamoxifen, raloxifene, or aromatase inhibitors can be used to treat gynecomastia by reducing estrogen levels or blocking the effects of estrogen.
Surgery: If gynecomastia is severe and causing significant discomfort, surgery may be required. The most common surgical procedure for gynecomastia is called male breast reduction, which involves removing excess breast tissue through liposuction or surgery.
Lifestyle changes: In some cases, lifestyle changes such as weight loss or avoiding the use of certain medications or substances that can cause gynecomastia may be helpful.

Medicines For Gynecomastia

Tamoxifen: This medication is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) that can be used to treat gynecomastia caused by an estrogen imbalance. It works by blocking estrogen receptors in breast tissue and reducing the size of the breast gland.
Danazol: This medication is a synthetic androgen that can be used to treat gynecomastia caused by an imbalance of estrogen and testosterone. It works by reducing the production of estrogen and increasing the production of testosterone.
Aromatase inhibitors: These medications are used to treat gynecomastia caused by an excess of estrogen in the body. They work by blocking the enzyme aromatase, which is responsible for converting androgens (male hormones) into estrogen.