Infertility: Cause, Symptoms & Treatment
Infertility is a medical condition that affects a person’s ability to conceive and have a baby. It is defined as the inability to conceive after having regular unprotected sex for a year or more. Infertility can affect both men and women and can be caused by various factors such as hormonal imbalances, ovulation disorders, blocked fallopian tubes, low sperm count or poor sperm quality, and age-related decline in fertility. Infertility can have a significant impact on a person’s mental and emotional well-being and can lead to feelings of frustration, stress, and depression. Treatment options for infertility may include medications, surgery, assisted reproductive technology such as in vitro fertilization (IVF), or lifestyle changes. It is essential to consult a healthcare provider if you are experiencing infertility symptoms or have been trying to conceive without success for an extended period.
What causes female infertility?
Female factors can also contribute to infertility. Here are some of the most common female factors for infertility:
- Ovulation disorders: Conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), thyroid dysfunction, and other hormonal imbalances can affect ovulation, making it difficult to conceive.
- Fallopian tube damage or blockage: Fallopian tubes are responsible for transporting eggs from the ovaries to the uterus. If they are damaged or blocked, the egg may not be able to reach the uterus, making it difficult to conceive.
- Endometriosis: A condition where the tissue that lines the uterus grows outside of it, leading to scarring and damage to the reproductive organs.
- Uterine problems: Uterine abnormalities, such as fibroids or polyps, can interfere with the implantation of a fertilized egg.
- Age-related decline in fertility: As women age, their fertility decreases due to a decrease in the quantity and quality of their eggs.
- Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID): It is an infection of the female reproductive organs that can lead to infertility in women. It causes inflammation and scarring that can damage the reproductive organs, including the fallopian tubes, and lead to adhesions that obstruct the tubes and ovaries. This damage can prevent the egg from being fertilized or make it difficult for the fertilized egg to pass through the tube and into the uterus. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of PID are essential to prevent the damage that can lead to infertility. Symptoms of PID include pelvic pain, abnormal vaginal discharge, fever, and painful urination.
- Abnormalities in the cervical mucus: The cervix produces mucus that helps sperm travel through the cervix and into the uterus. If the mucus is too thick or too thin, it may be difficult for sperm to pass through.
- Autoimmune disorders: Certain autoimmune disorders, such as lupus or antiphospholipid syndrome, can interfere with pregnancy by causing the body to attack the developing fetus.
- Ovulation disorders
- Blocked or damaged fallopian tubes
- Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)
- Age-related decline in fertility
- Male factors:
- Low sperm count or poor sperm quality
- Problems with sperm delivery or ejaculation
- Erectile dysfunction
- Varicocele (enlarged veins in the testes
- Combined factors:
- Unexplained infertility
- Genetic factors
- Lifestyle factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, drug abuse, or being overweight
Who is at risk for female infertility?
Female infertility can affect women of all ages, but there are certain risk factors that can increase the likelihood of infertility. Some of these risk factors include:
- Hormone issue that prevents ovulation in women
- Abnormal menstrual cycle.
- Obesity or Being underweight.
Structural problems with the uterus, fallopian tubes, or ovaries
- DES syndrome
- Uterine fibroids and Cysts.
- Autoimmune disorders such as lupus, thyroid problems, rheumatoid arthritis, and Hashimoto’s disease
- Sexually transmitted infections (STIs).
- Heavy drinking or Smoking.
- Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS).
- Primary Ovary Insufficiency (POI).
What causes male infertility?
It is important to note that in some cases, the cause of male infertility may be unknown. If you are experiencing difficulty conceiving, it is recommended to speak with a doctor for a thorough evaluation and proper diagnosis. There are several following factors that can contribute to male infertility.
- Low sperm count or poor sperm quality: This can be caused by a variety of factors such as hormonal imbalances, genetic disorders, varicocele (enlargement of veins in the scrotum), infections, certain medications, or exposure to toxins such as pesticides or heavy metals.
- Erectile dysfunction or premature ejaculation: These conditions can make it difficult for a man to achieve or maintain an erection or ejaculate properly.
- Obstruction of the reproductive tract: This can occur due to a blockage in the tubes that transport sperm, such as in the case of a vasectomy or infection.
- Abnormalities in the testes: Certain conditions such as undescended testicles, testicular cancer, or testicular injury can cause infertility.
- Hormonal imbalances: An imbalance in hormones such as testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), or luteinizing hormone (LH) can affect sperm production.
- Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, drug use, obesity, and exposure to high levels of stress or heat can also contribute to male infertility.
Symptoms of infertility in females
The most common symptom of infertility in females is the inability to conceive or become pregnant after a year of regular, unprotected sexual intercourse. However, there are other symptoms that may indicate an underlying issue with fertility. These symptoms include:
- Irregular or absent menstrual periods: Women with irregular or absent periods may have difficulty ovulating, which can make it more difficult to become pregnant.
- Painful periods: Painful periods can be a symptom of conditions such as endometriosis, which can interfere with fertility.
- Abnormal vaginal discharge: Abnormal vaginal discharge can be a symptom of infections such as pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), which can cause scarring and damage to the reproductive organs.
- Pain during intercourse: Pain during intercourse can be a symptom of conditions such as endometriosis or pelvic inflammatory disease (PID).
- Changes in hair growth or skin: Changes in hair growth or skin, such as excessive hair growth or acne, can be a symptom of conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which can interfere with ovulation.
- Weight gain: Weight gain can be a symptom of conditions such as PCOS, which can interfere with ovulation and fertility.
Symptoms of infertility in Males
Infertility in males can manifest in a variety of ways, and some men may not experience any noticeable symptoms. However, here are some of the common signs and symptoms of male infertility:
- Low sperm count: A low sperm count is the primary cause of male infertility. If a man’s semen analysis shows that he has fewer than 15 million sperm per milliliter of semen, he may have difficulty fathering a child.
- Abnormal sperm morphology: If a man’s sperm has an abnormal shape or size, it can reduce the chances of fertilization.
- Low sperm motility: If a man’s sperm have poor motility (movement), they may have difficulty reaching and fertilizing an egg.
- Erectile dysfunction: Difficulty achieving or maintaining an erection can make it difficult for a man to have sexual intercourse and conceive a child.
- Pain, swelling, or lumps in the testicles: These symptoms can indicate a problem with the testicles, such as a varicocele (enlarged veins in the scrotum) or a testicular infection.
- Hormonal imbalances: A hormonal imbalance, such as low testosterone levels, can affect sperm production and lead to infertility.
Treatment for infertility
The treatment for infertility depends on the underlying cause and can vary from person to person. Some common treatment options for infertility are:
- Medications: Fertility drugs such as Clomiphene or Letrozole can be prescribed to stimulate ovulation in women, while medications such as Gonadotropins can be used to increase sperm production in men.
- Surgery: Surgery can be performed to correct structural problems such as blocked fallopian tubes, endometriosis, or uterine fibroids.
Intrauterine insemination (IUI) is a fertility treatment procedure that involves placing washed and concentrated sperm directly into the uterus at the time of ovulation. It is a less invasive and less expensive option than in vitro fertilization (IVF) and is commonly used for couples with unexplained infertility, mild male factor infertility, or when the woman has ovulation problems. The procedure involves monitoring the woman’s ovulation cycle using ultrasound scans and blood tests to determine the optimal time for insemination. The prepared sperm is then inserted directly into the uterus using a thin catheter, and a pregnancy test is usually conducted about two weeks after the procedure to determine if the insemination was successful. The success rates vary depending on various factors such as age, the underlying cause of infertility, and the number of insemination cycles attempted.
In vitro fertilization (IVF) is a complex and expensive fertility treatment procedure that involves combining eggs and sperm in a laboratory dish and then transferring the resulting embryo(s) into the uterus. The process involves several steps, including ovarian stimulation, egg retrieval, sperm collection, fertilization, and embryo transfer. IVF success rates vary depending on various factors such as age, the underlying cause of infertility, and the number of embryos transferred. The procedure carries some risks, including multiple pregnancies and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). It is essential to consult a healthcare provider to determine if IVF is a suitable treatment option based on individual needs and circumstances.
Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is a fertility treatment procedure used in conjunction with in vitro fertilization (IVF) to help couples with severe male factor infertility or other factors that may decrease the chance of fertilization. The process involves ovarian stimulation, egg retrieval, sperm collection, sperm injection, and embryo transfer. ICSI has significantly improved the chances of fertilization and pregnancy in couples with severe male factor infertility. However, the procedure carries some risks, including damage to the eggs or embryos, and an increased risk of certain genetic disorders. It is essential to consult a healthcare provider to determine if ICSI is a suitable treatment option based on individual needs and circumstances.
Donor eggs or sperm: In cases where the person’s own eggs or sperm are not viable, donor eggs or sperm can be used for fertilization.
- Surrogacy: In cases where a woman is unable to carry a pregnancy to term, a surrogate can be used to carry the embryo to term.
It is essential to consult a healthcare provider to determine the best treatment option based on individual needs and circumstances.
There are several natural ways to boost fertility, such as:
- Eating a healthy diet: A diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean protein can help improve fertility.
- Managing stress: Stress can affect hormone levels and ovulation, so it’s important to find ways to manage stress, such as meditation, yoga, or deep breathing exercises.
- Getting enough sleep: Lack of sleep can affect hormone levels and interfere with ovulation, so it’s important to aim for 7-8 hours of sleep each night.
- Avoiding smoking and excessive alcohol consumption: Both smoking and excessive alcohol consumption can affect fertility in both men and women.
- Regular exercise: Exercise can help improve fertility by reducing stress, maintaining a healthy weight, and improving overall health.
- Taking prenatal vitamins: Prenatal vitamins contain important nutrients such as folic acid, which can improve fertility and reduce the risk of birth defects.
It’s important to note that if you are struggling with fertility, it’s always a good idea to speak with a healthcare provider for personalized advice and recommendations.
Prajnas Capsule –
प्रजनस कैप्सूल मुख्य रूप से महिलाओं में हार्मोन और मासिक धर्म को संतुलित करने के साथ-साथ पुरुषों में इरेक्टाइल डिस्फंक्शन को ठीक करने और उच्च गुणवत्ता वाले शुक्राणु बढ़ाने के लिए उपयोग किया जाता है। प्रजनस कैप्सूल में मुख्य रूप से गोक्षुरा, कपिकच्छू और शतावरी जैसी प्राकृतिक जड़ी-बूटियों का समन्वय है। इसका कोई साइड इफेक्ट नहीं होता है।
खुराक: 1-2 कैप्सूल दिन में दो बार लें।