Chronic immune thrombocytopenia (ITP)

Chronic immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by low platelet count in the blood, leading to an increased risk of bleeding. Platelets are small, colorless cell fragments that are essential for blood clotting. In ITP, the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys platelets, reducing their numbers.The exact cause of chronic ITP is unknown, but it is believed to involve a dysfunction of the immune system. The condition is usually diagnosed through a physical exam, blood tests to measure platelet count and other factors, and a bone marrow biopsy to rule out other conditions.

Symptoms of Chronic immune thrombocytopenia (ITP)

Symptoms of chronic ITP may include easy bruising, petechiae (small red or purple spots on the skin), prolonged bleeding from cuts, nosebleeds, or menstrual periods, and fatigue. Treatment for chronic ITP may include medications, such as corticosteroids, immunoglobulins, and immunosuppressants, to suppress the immune system and increase platelet count. In severe cases, splenectomy (surgery to remove the spleen ) may be recommended.

Diagnosis of chronic ITP

Chronic ITP is diagnosed when the low platelet count persists for more than six months. The disorder can affect people of all ages, but it is more common in women and children. Symptoms of chronic ITP may include easy bruising, prolonged bleeding after injury, petechiae (small, red spots on the skin), and gum or nosebleeds.

Treatment of chronic ITP

Treatment for chronic ITP depends on the severity of the disorder and the presence of bleeding symptoms. Mild cases may not require treatment, but patients with more severe symptoms may benefit from medications that suppress the immune system, such as corticosteroids, immunoglobulin therapy, or rituximab. In some cases, splenectomy (surgery to remove the spleen ) may be recommended.
In addition to medical treatment, patients with chronic ITP can take steps to reduce their risk of bleeding. This may include avoiding contact sports or other activities that increase the risk of injury, using a soft-bristled toothbrush, and taking precautions when using sharp objects such as knives or scissors.

Care of Chronic immune thrombocytopenia (ITP)

It is important for individuals with chronic ITP to avoid activities that could cause bleeding or injury, such as contact sports, and to notify their healthcare provider if they experience any unusual bleeding or bruising. While chronic ITP can be a challenging condition to manage, many individuals are able to lead normal, healthy lives with appropriate treatment and self-care measures. Regular follow-up with a healthcare provider is important to monitor platelet counts and adjust treatment as needed.

Medicines used for Chronic ITP Patient

  • Romiplostim