Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic inflammatory lung disease that causes obstruction of the airflow in the lungs, making it difficult to breathe. The two main types of COPD are chronic bronchitis and emphysema, although many people with COPD have a combination of both conditions. Chronic bronchitis is characterized by a persistent cough with mucus production, while emphysema is characterized by damage to the air sacs in the lungs, which reduces their ability to inflate and deflate properly. In both cases, the obstruction of airflow in the lungs can cause shortness of breath, wheezing, and coughing, which can worsen over time. Cigarette smoking is the primary cause of COPD, although long-term exposure to other lung irritants, such as air pollution, dust, and chemicals, can also contribute to the development of COPD. Other risk factors for COPD include a family history of the disease, respiratory infections, and certain genetic factors.

Symptoms of COPD

Symptoms of COPD may include:

  • Shortness of breath, especially during physical activity
  • Chronic cough with or without mucus production
  • Wheezing or a whistling sound when breathing
  • Chest tightness or discomfort
  • Fatigue and decreased energy levels
  • Recurrent respiratory infections
  • Difficulty in sleeping 
  • Unintended weight loss
  • Swelling in the legs, ankles, or feet
  • Bluish lips or fingernail beds (cyanosis)

Diagnose of COPD

COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by the narrowing of the airways and damage to the lungs. The diagnosis of COPD typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, and pulmonary function tests.

  • Medical history: The first step in diagnosing COPD is taking a detailed medical history, including asking about symptoms such as cough, sputum production, shortness of breath, and wheezing. The healthcare provider will also ask about any exposure to lung irritants, such as cigarette smoke or air pollution.
  • Physical examination: During the physical exam, the healthcare provider will listen to the patient’s chest using a stethoscope to check for wheezing, crackling sounds, or decreased breath sounds. They may also check the patient’s heart rate, blood pressure, and oxygen saturation levels.
  • Pulmonary function tests: The most important test to diagnose COPD is the pulmonary function test (PFT), which measures lung function. The PFT measures the amount of air a person can forcefully exhale in one second (FEV1) and the total amount of air that can be exhaled after taking a deep breath (FVC). A reduced FEV1/FVC ratio confirms the presence of airflow obstruction, which is characteristic of COPD.
  • Chest X-ray or CT scan: A chest X-ray or CT scan can help rule out other conditions, such as lung cancer or heart failure.
  • Blood tests: Blood tests may be performed to rule out other causes of symptoms, such as a high white blood cell count indicating infection or elevated levels of a protein indicating heart failure.

Treatment of COPD

The treatment of COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) aims to relieve symptoms, prevent complications, and improve quality of life. The treatment plan may include a combination of medications, lifestyle changes, and in some cases, surgery.


  • Bronchodilators: Medications that relax the muscles around the airways, such as beta-agonists and anticholinergics, are commonly used to improve breathing.
  • Inhaled corticosteroids: These medications can reduce inflammation in the airways.
  • Combination inhalers: These inhalers contain both bronchodilators and corticosteroids.
  • Phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitors: These medications help reduce inflammation and can be used to prevent exacerbations.
  • Oxygen therapy: Oxygen therapy may be prescribed for people with severe COPD and low oxygen levels in their blood.

Lifestyle changes:

  • Smoking cessation: The most important step for people with COPD is to quit smoking.
  • Pulmonary rehabilitation: A rehabilitation program that includes exercise training, breathing techniques, and education about COPD can improve lung function and quality of life.
  • Healthy diet: A balanced diet can help maintain a healthy weight, which can reduce the workload on the lungs.
  • Avoiding triggers: People with COPD should avoid exposure to lung irritants, such as cigarette smoke, air pollution, and chemicals.


  • Lung volume reduction surgery: This surgery removes damaged tissue from the lungs, allowing the remaining healthy tissue to function more efficiently.
  • Lung transplant: In severe cases, a lung transplant may be an option.

Prevention of COPD

Prevention of COPD involves avoiding or reducing exposure to lung irritants and making healthy lifestyle choices. There are following some ways to prevent COPD:

  • Quit smoking: The most important step to prevent COPD is to quit smoking or never start smoking. Smoking is the leading cause of COPD, so avoiding tobacco smoke is essential.
  • Avoid exposure to lung irritants: Exposure to secondhand smoke, air pollution, chemical fumes, and dust can also contribute to COPD. It is important to avoid these irritants or use protective equipment, such as masks, when necessary.
    Maintain a healthy lifestyle: A healthy lifestyle can also reduce the risk of developing COPD. Eating a healthy diet, exercising regularly, and maintaining a healthy weight can all contribute to lung health.
  • Regular check-ups: People at high risk for COPD, such as smokers or those with a family history of the disease, should have regular check-ups with a healthcare provider to monitor lung function and detect any early signs of the disease.
  • Vaccinations: Receiving vaccinations for the flu and pneumonia can also prevent respiratory infections that can contribute to COPD.

Prevention is key when it comes to COPD, and making healthy choices and avoiding lung irritants can help reduce the risk of developing the disease.

Medicines used for COPD

Choline Theophyllinate
Bacterial Lysate
Acebrophylline + Acetylcysteine
Acebrophylline + Montelukast
Acetylcysteine + Ambroxol
Ambroxol + Salbutamol
Beclometasone + Formoterol
Bromhexine + Etofylline + Menthol+Albuterol
Bromhexine + Salbutamol + Theophylline
Choline Theophyllinate + Salbutamol+Bromhexine
Ciclesonide + Formoterol
Ciclesonide + Formoterol + Tiotropium
Doxofylline + Acebrophylline
Doxofylline + Ambroxol
Etofylline + Theophylline
Formoterol + Budesonide
Formoterol + Fluticasone Propionate
Formoterol + Mometasone
Formoterol + Tiotropium
Indacaterol + Glycopyrrolate
Levosalbutamol + Ambroxol
Levosalbutamol + Budesonide
Levosalbutamol + Ipratropium
Salbutamol + Beclometasone
Salbutamol + Bromhexine
Salbutamol + Etofylline+Bromhexine
Salbutamol + Ipratropium
Salmeterol + Fluticasone Propionate
Terbutaline + Ambroxol
Terbutaline + Bromhexine
Theophylline + Ambroxol + Salbutamol
Xylometazoline + Ipratropium
Ambroxol + Etofylline + Theophylline
Ambroxol + Etofylline + Terbutaline
Theophylline + Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)
Formoterol + Glycopyrrolate
Choline Theophyllinate + Terbutaline
Terbutaline + Doxofylline
Acebrophylline + Terbutaline + Menthol
Glycopyrrolate + Formoterol + Fluticasone Propionate