Crohn's disease : Symptoms, Treatment & medicines

What is Crohn's disease ?

Crohn’s disease is a type of chronic inflammatory condition that can affect any part of the GI tract, from the mouth to the anus. It is named after the gastroenterologist who first described the condition, Dr. Burrill Bernard Crohn, in 1932.

Crohn’s disease can be a debilitating and life-altering condition, causing symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, fatigue, and weight loss. It can also cause complications such as bowel obstruction, abscesses, and fistulas. Living with Crohn’s disease can be challenging, but with the right treatment and support, it is possible to manage the condition and lead a full and productive life.

cause of Crohn's disease

The exact cause of Crohn’s disease is not known, but it is believed to be a combination of genetic and environmental factors.. It is more common in people with a family history of the disease, as well as in people who smoke

Symptoms of Crohn's disease

Crohn’s disease is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that can affect any part of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract from the mouth to the anus. The symptoms of Crohn’s disease can change depending on the location and severity of inflammation, but they often include:

  • Abdominal pain and cramping: This is a common symptom of Crohn’s disease, and the pain may be severe and persistent.
  • Diarrhea: Crohn’s disease can cause frequent and urgent bowel movements that are loose and watery.
  • Fatigue: Crohn’s disease can cause fatigue due to malnutrition, anemia, and the body’s immune response.
  • Fever: Inflammation caused by Crohn’s disease can lead to fever.
  • Blood in the stool: Inflammation can cause bleeding in the GI tract, resulting in the bloody stool.
  • Weight loss: Malabsorption and reduced appetite caused by Crohn’s disease can result in weight loss.
  • Nausea and vomiting: Inflammation and obstruction caused by Crohn’s disease can cause nausea and vomiting.
  • Joint pain and swelling: Crohn’s disease can cause inflammation in the joints, leading to pain and swelling.
  • Skin problems: Inflammation caused by Crohn’s disease can lead to skin problems such as rashes and ulcers.

It is important to note that not everyone with Crohn’s disease will experience all of these symptoms, and some people may have mild symptoms while others have severe symptoms. Additionally, symptoms can come and go, and may change over time. It is important to consult a healthcare professional if you suspect you may have Crohn’s disease.

Diagnosis of Crohn's disease

The diagnosis of Crohn’s disease typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Here are some of the common diagnostic procedures:

  •  Medical history and physical examination: The doctor will ask about your symptoms, medical history, family history, and perform a physical examination to look for signs of inflammation, such as abdominal tenderness, weight loss, and joint pain.
  • Blood tests: Blood tests can help to rule out other conditions and provide clues about inflammation and malnutrition.
  • Stool tests: Stool tests can help to rule out infections and parasites that can cause symptoms similar to Crohn’s disease.
  • Imaging studies: Imaging studies such as X-rays, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and endoscopy may be used to look for inflammation and structural abnormalities in the GI tract.
  • Biopsy: During an endoscopy or colonoscopy, the doctor may take a small tissue sample (biopsy) for laboratory analysis to confirm the diagnosis of Crohn’s disease.

It is important to note that there is no single test that can definitively diagnose Crohn’s disease. The diagnosis is based on a combination of clinical symptoms, laboratory tests, and imaging studies, and may require several tests over time to confirm the diagnosis.

Treatment for Crohn's disease

The treatment for Crohn’s disease depends on the severity and location of inflammation, as well as the individual’s overall health and medical history. The motive of treatment is to reduce inflammation, relieve symptoms, and prevent complications. Here are some common treatments:

  • Medications: Anti-inflammatory drugs such as aminosalicylates, corticosteroids, and immunosuppressants can help to reduce inflammation in the GI tract. Biologic therapies, such as anti-TNF medications, can also help to reduce inflammation by blocking specific proteins in the immune system.
  • Nutrition therapy: In some cases, a special liquid diet or enteral nutrition may be used to help reduce inflammation and promote healing in the GI tract. A Dietitian can help for developing an individualized nutrition plan.
  • Surgery: Surgery may be necessary if medications and other treatments are not effective, or if there are complications such as bowel obstruction or abscess. Surgery may involve removing the affected portion of the GI tract and re-attaching the healthy sections.
  • Lifestyle changes: Quitting smoking, reducing stress, and getting regular exercise may help to reduce inflammation and improve overall health.

Crohn’s disease is a chronic condition that requires ongoing management, and regular monitoring by a healthcare provider is necessary to prevent complications and maintain remission.

Prevention of Crohn's disease

The exact cause of Crohn’s disease is not fully understood, so there is no known way to prevent the development of the disease. However, there are some lifestyle factors that may help reduce the risk of developing Crohn’s disease or prevent symptoms from worsening:

  • Avoid smoking: Smoking has been shown to increase the risk of developing Crohn’s disease and worsen symptoms in those who already have the disease.
  • Maintain a healthy diet: Eating a healthy diet with plenty of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean protein, and healthy fats may help reduce inflammation and support overall health.
  • Manage stress: Chronic stress may worsen symptoms of Crohn’s disease, so finding ways to manage stress, such as exercise, meditation, or therapy, may help.
  • Get regular exercise: Regular exercise can help reduce inflammation, improve mood, and support overall health.

Medicines For Crohn's disease

There are several types of medications that can be used to treat Crohn’s disease, depending on the severity and location of inflammation, as well as the individual’s overall health and medical history. Here are some common medications used to treat Crohn’s disease:

  • Aminosalicylates: These anti-inflammatory drugs can help to reduce inflammation in the GI tract and relieve symptoms such as diarrhea and abdominal pain.
  • Corticosteroids: These anti-inflammatory drugs may be used to treat moderate to severe inflammation, but they can have side effects if used long-term.
  • Immunosuppressants: These drugs can help to suppress the immune system and reduce inflammation in the GI tract. They may be used to maintain remission and prevent flare-ups.
  • Biologic therapies: These medications, such as anti-TNF medications, work by blocking specific proteins in the immune system that contribute to inflammation.
  • Antibiotics: These drugs may be used to treat infections and reduce inflammation in the GI tract.

It is important to work closely with a healthcare provider to determine the most appropriate medication for your individual needs and goals. Some medications may have side effects or interactions with other medications, so it is important to inform your healthcare provider of all medications and supplements you are taking. Additionally, medication alone may not be sufficient to manage Crohn’s disease, and lifestyle changes such as diet and stress management may also be important.


Salts For Crohn's disease

  • Abatacept
  • Actarit
  • Adalimumab
  • Auranofin
  • Etanercept
  • Iguratimod
  • Infliximab
  • Leflunomide
  • Mesalazine
  • Penicillamine
  • Sulfasalazine
  • Tocilizumab
  • Ustekinumab
  • Vedolizumab