Dengue: Symptoms, Treatment & medicines
Dengue is a viral infection caused by the Dengue virus, primarily transmitted to humans through the bite of infected Aedes mosquitoes. These mosquitoes become infected with the Dengue virus by feeding on the blood of a person who is already infected with the virus. The Dengue virus belongs to the family Flaviviridae, and there are four different serotypes (DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3, and DENV-4) that can cause dengue fever.
What is the main cause of dengue?
When a Aedes mosquitoes bites a person infected with the dengue virus, it can become infected and then transmit the virus to other people it bites.
Symptoms of dengue
The symptoms of dengue can vary depending on the severity of the infection. Some people infected with dengue may not experience any symptoms, while others may experience mild to severe symptoms. The symptoms of dengue typically appear within 3-14 days after a person has been bitten by an infected mosquito. The symptoms of dengue are :
- High fever (up to 105°F or 40°C)
- Severe headache, especially behind the eyes
- Pain in the joints, muscles, and bones
- Nausea and vomiting
- Rash, which can appear on the face, limbs, and torso
- Mild bleeding, Such as bleeding in gums, bleeding nose, or easy bruising
- Abdominal pain or tenderness
In severe cases of dengue, a person may experience additional symptoms, such as:
- Severe abdominal pain or persistent vomiting
- Difficulty breathing
- Cold or clammy skin
- Fatigue or restlessness
- Bleeding from the nose or gums
- Severe headache or dizziness
- Rapid heartbeat or low blood pressure
If you suspect that you or someone else may have dengue, it is important to seek medical attention immediately. Early diagnosis and It’s treatment can help prevent serious complications.
how to diagnosis dengue fever?
Diagnosis of dengue fever typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation and laboratory tests. Some common methods of diagnosing dengue fever include:
- Physical examination: A doctor may perform a physical exam and ask about a person’s symptoms and recent travel history to areas where dengue is prevalent.
- Blood tests: A blood test can confirm the presence of the dengue virus. These tests may include an antigen test or a molecular test, which detects the virus directly, or a serology test, which detects antibodies to the virus.
- Complete blood count (CBC): A CBC can help evaluate the severity of the infection by measuring the levels of different blood components, such as platelets, white blood cells, and red blood cells.
- Liver function tests: These tests can help determine if the liver has been affected by the infection.
- Ultrasound: In some cases, an ultrasound may be used to check for fluid accumulation or bleeding in the abdomen.
- NAATs is the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), which is commonly used for the detection of dengue virus RNA in clinical samples. RT-PCR is a sensitive and specific technique that can detect dengue virus RNA within a few days of infection, even before the onset of symptoms. This makes it a valuable tool for the early diagnosis of dengue fever and the identification of outbreaks.
Treatment for dengue fever
There is no specific antiviral treatment for dengue fever, and management of the disease focuses on relieving symptoms and preventing complications. Here are some general measures that can be taken:
- Rest and hydration: Patients with dengue fever should get plenty of rest and drink lots of fluids to prevent dehydration.
- Pain and fever relief: Acetaminophen (paracetamol) can help relieve pain and reduce fever. Aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) should be avoided, because they can increase the risk of bleeding.
- Monitoring: Patients with dengue fever should be closely monitored for signs of severe dengue, such as abdominal pain, persistent vomiting, bleeding, and respiratory distress. These symptoms may indicate a more severe form of the disease that requires hospitalization.
- Hospitalization: Patients with severe dengue may require hospitalization for intravenous fluid therapy and monitoring of blood pressure and other vital signs.
- Prevention of mosquito bites: Patients with dengue fever should take steps to prevent further mosquito bites, such as wearing protective clothing, using mosquito repellent, and sleeping under mosquito nets.
Prevention of dengue
Prevention of dengue fever involves measures to reduce mosquito breeding and prevent mosquito bites. Here are some ways that can be used:
- Reduce mosquito breeding: Aedes mosquitoes that transmit dengue fever breed in standing water, so eliminating or reducing standing water around the home can help prevent their breeding. This includes removing sources of standing water, such as flower pots, old tires, and open containers, and covering or cleaning out water storage containers.
- Use mosquito repellent: Applying a mosquito repellent containing DEET, picaridin, or oil of lemon eucalyptus can help prevent mosquito bites. It’s important to follow the label’s instructions and reapply as needed.
- Wear protective clothing: Wearing long-sleeved shirts, long pants, and socks can help in protecting against mosquito bites. Light-colored cloth may be less attractive to mosquitoes.
- Use mosquito nets: Sleeping under mosquito nets, particularly during the daytime when Aedes mosquitoes are most active, can help prevent mosquito bites.
- Keep doors and windows closed: Keeping doors and windows closed, or using screens, can help prevent mosquitoes from entering the home.
- Community-wide measures: Community-wide measures, such as mosquito control programs and public education campaigns, can help reduce the spread of dengue fever.
Medicines For dengue fever
There is no specific medication to treat dengue fever, and the management of the disease focuses on relieving symptoms and preventing complications. The use of certain medications, such as aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), should be avoided, as they can increase the risk of bleeding. Here are some medications that may be used to manage the symptoms of dengue fever:
- Acetaminophen (paracetamol): This medication can help relieve pain and reduce fever. It is generally safe for use in patients with dengue fever but should be taken according to the recommended dosage.
- Intravenous fluids: Patients with severe dengue may require intravenous fluids to prevent dehydration and maintain blood pressure.
- Antiemetics: Antiemetic medications may be used to treat nausea and vomiting in patients with dengue fever.
- Blood transfusion: In severe cases of dengue fever, blood transfusions may be necessary to replace blood loss or to treat severe anemia.
It’s important to note that any medication should be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional, who will consider the patient’s individual circumstances and symptoms. Patients with dengue fever should avoid self-medication and should seek medical attention if their symptoms worsen or if they develop new symptoms.