Spinal Cord Injury: Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Prevention & Medicines

Spinal Cord Injury

A spinal cord injury (SCI) refers to damage to the spinal cord that results in loss of function, sensation, or mobility. The spinal cord is a bundle of nerves that runs from the brainstem down through the spine, and it is responsible for transmitting messages between the brain and the rest of the body. When the spinal cord is injured, these messages may not be able to pass through, which can result in a variety of symptoms depending on the location and severity of the injury.

Types of Spinal Cord Injury

Spinal cord injury (SCI) can be classified into two types based on the location of the injury:

  • Complete SCI: A complete SCI occurs when there is a total loss of sensation and movement below the level of injury. This means that there is no function or feeling below the injury site.
  • Incomplete SCI: An incomplete SCI occurs when there is some function and feeling below the level of injury. 

There are several subtypes of incomplete SCI, including:

  • Anterior cord syndrome: This occurs when the front part of the spinal cord is damaged, resulting in loss of movement and sensation below the injury site, but some sensations may be preserved.
  • Central cord syndrome: This occurs when the center of the spinal cord is damaged, resulting in loss of function in the arms and hands, but some functions may be preserved in the legs.
  • Brown-Sequard syndrome: This occurs when one side of the spinal cord is damaged, resulting in loss of movement and sensation on one side of the body, but some functionality may be preserved on the other side.
  • Cauda equina syndrome: This occurs when the nerve roots at the bottom of the spinal cord are damaged, resulting in loss of function and sensation in the lower body, including the legs and bladder.

Symptoms of Spinal Cord Injury

The symptoms of spinal cord injury (SCI) depend on the location and severity of the injury. The symptoms can range from mild to severe, and they can be temporary or permanent. Here are some common symptoms of SCI:

  • Loss of sensation: SCI can cause loss of sensation, including the ability to feel touch, pressure, temperature, and pain below the level of injury.
  • Loss of motor function: SCI can cause paralysis or weakness of the limbs or trunk, which can lead to difficulty with walking, balance, or fine motor skills.
  • Changes in reflexes: SCI can cause changes in reflexes, such as hyperreflexia (overactive reflexes) or hyporeflexia (reduced reflexes).
  • Loss of bowel and bladder control: SCI can cause loss of control over bowel and bladder function, which can lead to incontinence.
  • Sexual dysfunction: SCI can affect sexual function, including loss of sensation, difficulty achieving or maintaining an erection, and difficulty with ejaculation or orgasm.
  • Respiratory problems: SCI can affect breathing muscles, which can lead to difficulty breathing, coughing, or clearing secretions.
  • Pain: SCI can cause pain, including neuropathic pain (pain caused by damage to the nerves) or musculoskeletal pain (pain caused by damage to the muscles, bones, or joints).

Causes of Spinal Cord Injury

Spinal cord injuries (SCI) can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

  • Trauma: The most common cause of SCI is trauma, such as a car accident, a fall, or a sports injury. These types of accidents can cause fractures or dislocations of the vertebrae, which can damage the spinal cord.
  • Diseases: Certain diseases such as cancer, infections, and inflammation can damage the spinal cord, resulting in SCI.
  • Degeneration: Conditions such as spinal stenosis, arthritis, and degenerative disc disease can cause compression of the spinal cord, leading to SCI.
  • Birth defects: Some babies are born with spinal cord abnormalities that can cause SCI.
  • Toxic exposure: Exposure to toxins such as lead, mercury, or pesticides can damage the spinal cord and result in SCI.
  • Medical procedures: Certain medical procedures such as spinal surgery or epidural injections can lead to SCI if not performed correctly

diagnosis of Spinal Cord Injury

Spinal cord injury (SCI) is typically diagnosed through a combination of medical history, physical examination, and imaging tests. The medical history helps to determine the cause of the injury, while the physical examination assesses the individual’s ability to move their arms and legs, reflexes, muscle strength, and sensation. Imaging tests like X-rays, computed tomography (CT) scans, or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are used to confirm the diagnosis and determine the extent of the injury. Electrophysiological testing can also be used to measure the electrical activity of the spinal cord and muscles to assess the level and extent of nerve damage. It is important to seek medical attention immediately if you suspect a spinal cord injury.

What are the latest Informations on spinal cord injury?

There have been several recent developments in the field of spinal cord injury (SCI) research and treatment. 

  • Stem cell therapy: Stem cell therapy has shown promise in treating SCI by promoting the growth of new nerve cells and restoring function. Recent studies have demonstrated the safety and efficacy of this approach in animal models and in small human trials.
  • Epidural stimulation: Epidural stimulation involves the implantation of a device that delivers electrical stimulation to the spinal cord. This approach has shown promise in restoring movement and sensation in people with SCI, with several clinical trials currently underway.
  • Rehabilitation: Rehabilitation remains an important component of SCI treatment, with recent research focusing on optimizing rehabilitation techniques and identifying the most effective approaches for improving function and quality of life.
  • Neuroprotection: Neuroprotective strategies aim to limit the damage to the spinal cord immediately after injury and prevent further degeneration. Recent research has identified several promising neuroprotective agents and therapies, including antioxidants, anti-inflammatory agents, and gene therapy.
  • Assistive technology: Advances in assistive technology, such as exoskeletons and brain-computer interfaces, have provided new opportunities for people with SCI to regain mobility and independence.

Overall, research in SCI is focused on developing new therapies and approaches that can improve outcomes and quality of life for people with SCI.


In conclusion, spinal cord injuries can have profound and lasting effects on an individual’s life. From the causes to the rehabilitation methods, understanding the complexities of spinal cord injuries is crucial for prevention, treatment, and support. By staying informed and promoting research in this field, we can strive to improve the quality of life for those affected by spinal cord injuries.

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