Zidovudine: Exploring Uses, Dosage, Side Effects, and Interactions

Prescription Required

Zidovudine, commonly known as AZT, has played a significant role in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection since its introduction. This article provides comprehensive insights into the uses, dosage, potential side effects, and interactions associated with Zidovudine.


Mechanism of Action: Zidovudine is classified as a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI). It works by inhibiting the reverse transcriptase enzyme, an essential component in the replication of HIV. By doing so, Zidovudine prevents the conversion of viral RNA into DNA, effectively inhibiting viral replication.

Indications for Use: Zidovudine is used in combination with other antiretroviral drugs to manage HIV infection, improve immune function, and reduce the viral load in individuals with the virus.

Dosage and Administration

Dosage Forms: Zidovudine is available in tablet and capsule forms, commonly in strengths of 100 mg, 300 mg, and 250 mg.

Dosage Recommendations: The recommended adult dosage of Zidovudine depends on the specific antiretroviral regimen, individual patient factors, and the stage of HIV infection. It’s essential to follow the prescribed dosage provided by a healthcare professional.

Administration: Zidovudine can be taken with or without food. However, certain formulations may require specific dosing instructions, so it’s important to adhere to the prescribed regimen.

Potential Side Effects

Zidovudine is generally well-tolerated, but there are potential side effects that individuals should be aware of. Common side effects may include:

  • Nausea
  • Headache
  • Fatigue
  • Muscle pain
  • Anemia (low red blood cell count)

Bone Marrow Suppression

Zidovudine’s use is associated with bone marrow suppression, which can lead to decreased levels of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Regular blood tests are often conducted to monitor blood cell counts and adjust the treatment regimen if necessary.

Drug Interactions

Other Antiretroviral Drugs: Zidovudine is frequently used in combination with other antiretroviral medications. It’s essential to be aware of potential drug interactions and to communicate all medications being taken to healthcare providers.

Other Medications: Zidovudine may interact with certain medications, including those used for the treatment of infections, cancers, or other medical conditions. Inform healthcare providers about all medications being taken.

Precautions and Considerations

  • Medical Supervision: Zidovudine should only be used under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional experienced in HIV/AIDS treatment.
  • Adherence: Adhering to the prescribed dosage and regimen is crucial for effective viral suppression and to prevent the development of drug-resistant strains of HIV.
  • Regular Monitoring: Regular medical follow-ups, including viral load and CD4 cell count assessments, are crucial to monitor treatment progress and adjust the regimen if necessary.


Zidovudine has been a cornerstone in the treatment of HIV/AIDS, offering individuals the opportunity to manage their condition and lead healthier lives. By understanding its uses, dosage, potential side effects, and interactions, individuals can make informed decisions about their healthcare journey. Working closely with healthcare professionals and maintaining treatment adherence empowers individuals to effectively manage their condition and improve their quality of life.

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